Be an “Amibguity Sleuth”

Too many times, I’ve been reading an article by professionals, and suddenly come across a sentence or clause that takes a lot of effort to “decode.” This usually happens when when the reader’s mind mistakenly takes a literally- purposed phrase for a familiar idiom that might use the same combination of words. Or it can happen when the reverse appears as well: idiom-purposed for litterally-meant.

The best way to explain this is by example. Along with each example I’ll be making suggestions on how the ambiguity might be corrected — removing the “stumbling-block,” and thus improving the flow of the written work.

This one is from one of my own Tweets. It makes the reader have to decode whether I am using the word “values” as a noun or a verb:

“If they don’t attend it’s one more PROOF that GOP leadership values ideology over showing even an iota of respect for America’s institutions.”

The ambiguity arises from “GOP leadership values” When I re-read the tweet, I took “values” to be a a noun, as in GOP leadership-values. After I submbled, I remembered that I was saying that the leadership of the GOP values ideology over showing… I should have said that. Or maybe, better: the GOP’s leadership has come to value… either way would have avoided the ambiguity. Several of these in one piece of writing lowers the reader’s esteem for the writer.

I think you get the idea. As I run into more examples, I’ll update this article and put a notification on Twitter.


How to Approach a Poetry Assignment

How to Approach a Poetry Assignment

© 2020 by Vernon Miles Kerr,,

Hello writing students.  If you’ve been assigned the task of writing your first (or nearly first) poem, I think you might find this article a means of jump-starting your effort.  I hope so.

What is poetry?  It is the most advanced form of human communication.  It is far beyond mere rhetoric and far beyond any scientific treatise, because a well-written poem communicates on many levels all at the same time.  Yes, it communicates simple information, just as other types of writing do—but it also communicates emotion.  More than that, it transfers emotion from the poet directly into the soul of the reader. A poem communicates not just on a physical level but on a subconscious level and, perhaps, even a spiritual level as well. As my friend, mentor and former writing professor,  Dr. Manfred Wolf, wrote to me recently: “A good poem does have a certain Je ne sais quoi about it.”  More than just not knowing what it is that makes it a good poem,  a good one can leave you slightly stunned — if the poet is someone who really speaks to you personally.  In my case it’s Emily Dickinson.  Her short little poems are sometimes like acid cutting through the steel of my preconceived notions, and maybe my prejudices as well.

Here’s how I start a poem:  Write down what you want to say, in regular prose.  Assume your assignment is to write a poem about Spring.  Write down all the emotions you feel about Spring, positive AND negative — if you do have any negative feelings about it.  Those feelings might be negative for someone who has recently lost a loved one, where the happy sounds, fragrance and balmy breezes keep reminding that person of happy times they spent with their loved one.  It therefore winds up compounding their feeling of loss.

On the other hand, things are good or bad by comparison.  Use the soggy cold, muddy images of winter to emphasize the beauty, comfort and ease of springtime.  Use the quiet, lifeless woods of winter to showcase the riotous life breaking out in the spring such as squirrels chasing each other or mocking birds having song competitions across a field or woods.  Traveling to North Carolina from California, a few years ago, the woods around Mooresville were bare and the forest floor was brown.  Then one day, the dogwoods bloomed in the forest and they became  layers of white clouds, a cottony staircase marching up the hills between the ground and the, still bare, tops of the great hardwood trees.  The comparison between those delicate white flowers and the roughness of the tree bark and  dead leaves on the forest floor was very striking and memorable to someone seeing it for the first time.

The next step, after getting your emotions about your subject out onto paper, is start to pare it down. Throw away unneeded words; boil it down.  If you can imply something without even saying it directly, so much the better.  Experiment using synonyms and see what emotional effect the change of wording creates.

It’s not enough to provide information about the beauty of spring — or even a very accurate description of a springtime scene — if you don’t clearly communicate your emotional reaction to that scene.  Even better, would be to use it to show some psychological or emotional growth within you as the poem progresses.  The reader will be learning the lesson you learned right along with you as if they were re-living the experience of coming to an “epiphany” the same moment you did.

Go back and read a few poems by Emily Dickinson or perhaps Robert Frost.  Sip, don’t gulp.  Take a sip and roll it around in your mind and savor the taste like one would do with a fine wine. Read and re-read the same poem several times while meditating for a few moments at the end of each reading.

I haven’t said anything about rhyme or meter.  Songs have both, and poems used to. Now it’s optional.  Rather than being stuck in strict meter, such as Di dah, di dah, di dah, di dah, di dah … (iambic pentameter) try to make sure that (with or without meter) there is a pretty flow to your verses.  For an example of where little or no thought has been given toward maintaining a smoothly flowing rhythm in the mind of the reader, read a newspaper article .  Re-read your own poem when you think it’s finished.  Does its rhythm have the feel of a bumpy road or a beautiful new Interstate Highway?  If a rough ride, go back and flatten the bumps and fill in the pot-holes.  Above all, have fun.

For future hints and lessons, please follow using the block on this page.  VMK

Editing Your Writing

Nothing helps make your message more effective than simply re-reading it several times. You can do this in your mind, you can read it aloud, or even have your computer read it to you. Whichever of those methods you use, listen for cadence and flow. The flow may sound “choppy” if you use a lot of unnecessary conjunctions (but, or, yet, and, because, nor, since, that …) or even worse: compound conjunctions (as well, as well as, as long as, so that, even if, in order to …) Excise these whenever possible if it doesn’t detract from your meaning. Misuse or overuse of conjunctions is only one thing that causes a reader to trip and stumble through your work. By re-reading your work you will probably find other word or phrase-choices that detract from flow. Comments and Suggestions are welcome here.

Update – Nov. 17, 2019

As an excellent example of writing which flows beautifully see this Atlantic article by Yoni Applebaum, senior editor: